Answer to Question #202688 in English for SAM

Question #202688

2.1      Outline the elements to be included when planning the curriculum according to Tyler,


mentioned by Posner (1998). (4)


Describe five types of curricula. (5)


2.3      Interpret and analyse how the three principles of the curriculum policy could 

           be applied in the classroom.  (6) 

Expert's answer


According to Tyler, elements to be included when planning the curriculum include:

1.Determining the school's purpose to ensure its goals and expected outcomes are aligned with the curriculum strategy.

2.Identifying educational experiences that are related to purpose.

3.Organizing learner experiences for easy internalization.

4.Evaluating the purposes through assessment of learners.


1.Explicit curriculum: it's the formally stated instruction of schooling experiences. It may refer to textbooks, curriculum guides, standards and other planned formal educational experiences that support intentional instructional agenda of a school.

2.Hidden/covert curriculum: it's curriculum which is implied by the very structure and nature of schools, more so daily activities or established routines.

3.Societal curriculum: it's an ongoing, informal curriculum of family, churches, neighborhoods, organizations, peer groups, social media and all other socializing forces that educate us throughout our lives. Societal/ social curriculum has expanded to include social media as a tool for education.

4.Null curriculum: it refers to that which is not taught, thus implying to learners that those topics left out elements are not important in their educational experiences or in our society.

5.Concomitant curriculum: this entails values, ethics, morals and behaviors that are taught or emphasized at home or those experiences that are part of a family's experiences or related experiences approved by the family.


How principles of curriculum policy can be applied to the classroom:

1.Balance: this means that the curriculum is fairly distributed in regard to a particular learning area or discipline. Balance can be applied in the classroom by allocating number of days of teaching per topic.

2.Articulation: this means the smooth connection of the subject matters. Articulation can be applied in the classroom through reviews of the learning process to really establish and deepen the connection of the subject matters and make them more meaningful to children.

3.Integration: this is the horizontal connection in subject area. In the classroom, there are subject matters that can be integrated in other subject areas e.g. the integration of Math concepts in teaching Science.

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