Question 1: Part A: From the extract above, write a research-based essay in which you discuss the causes and effects of gender-based violence (GBV) (300 words). Part B: How can GBV be addressed? (choose a specific context when answering part B) (300 words).
Part A Caueses and effect of GBV
Domestic abuse cases in the general population continue to stymie public health campaigns and other societal activities aimed at reducing gender stereotypes. According to John, Casey, Carino, and McGovern (2020), violence directed at women includes physical, emotional, psychological, and sexual abuse perpetrated by a male perpetrator with the goal of establishing dominance or eroding victim’s self-esteem. Domestic violence cases involving girls and women are becoming more common in various regions of the world, with causes relating to a violent upbringing, violence within intimate relationships, social standing, and societal norms. Women who are victims of domestic violence face poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and hunger, making them easy prey for male control. Similarly, societal standards that reinforce male patriarchy and power over women continue to drive women's aggressiveness and violence. Finally, men and boys who encounter violence while they are young likely to imitate the behavior later in life.
Violence against women and girls has a considerable impact on general health, and the majority of victims acquire low self-esteem and despair as a result of it. Gender-based violence, according to Heise, Ellsberg, and Gottmoeller (2002), causes behavioural changes such as alcohol and drug abuse, depressive disorder, chronic diseases, and reproductive health difficulties. Women who have been the victims of an abusive relationship tend to adopt an inward-looking mentality out of dread of scorn or dread of their husbands. Women confront difficulties since they are unable to open up to their coworkers, causing them to go through emotional suffering alone. As a result, the majority of victims engage in harmful sexual behavior or remain in abusive relationships resulting in reproductive health complications.
Part B: How to address GBV
Several groups have created public health campaigns to address the rise in gender-based violence, particularly during the Covid-19 pandemic. According to John, the inequities posed by socioeconomic differences and social norms have resulted in an increase in incidences of violence against women and girls. Measures used to reduce domestic violence range from public awareness initiatives to legal action on the perpetrators associated with these vice.
These initiatives have had a noticeable impact on mainstream society's stereotyping, but they fall short of developing a long-term solution capable of tackling the root causes of gender-based violence. According to numerous researchers, focusing on the perpetrator's point of view is crucial in unlocking the nature of domestic violence in order to educate and sensitize society on the dangers of constraining women and girls (Casey, Carlson, Two Bulls & Yager, 2018). As a result, steps to address these pervasive behaviors have been implemented, with a focus on the male in the campaign to eradicate gender-based violence. By changing the masculine role in stereotyping, this gender transformational strategy is crucial in focusing on the standards accepted in society. It is possible to persuade more males to rethink their attitudes on gender violence and domination in society, as well as reach out to their coworkers who share similar views.
Casey, E., Carlson, J., Two Bulls, S., & Yager, A. (2018). Gender transformative approaches to engaging men in gender-based violence prevention: A review and conceptual model. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 19(2), 231-246.
Heise, L., Ellsberg, M., & Gottmoeller, M. (2002). A global overview of gender‐based violence. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 78, S5-S14.
John, N., Casey, S. E., Carino, G., & McGovern, T. (2020). Lessons never learned: crisis and gender‐based violence. Developing world bioethics, 20(2), 65-68.