Answer to Question #200061 in English for Thembela

Question #200061

● Select the core content area ● Identify assessment criterion ● Determine the teaching, learning and assessment context(s) and/or core knowledge and concepts ● Allocate time ● Plan for integration and resources The statements above are... 10.1 examples of the steps in the design process 10.2 examples of the steps in learning programme development 10.3 examples of the steps in lesson plan development 10.4 examples of the steps in work schedule development


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Expert's answer
2021-05-31T08:32:15-0400

10.1  Examples of the steps in the design process.

Analyze the situation

Before beginning the design, sort out what problem you are trying to address.

Write a brief

Write a short statement giving the general outline of the problem to be solved.

Research the problem

Sometimes a problem can be solved "straight out of your head," but in most cases you will need to gain some new information and knowledge.

Write a specification

This detailed description of the problem spells out what the design must achieve and what limitations will affect the final solution.

Work out possible solutions

Combine your ideas with information obtained from your research to suggest several possible design solutions. Sketch several possibilities on paper.

Select a preferred solution

Decide which solution to develop. Although the chosen solution should, ideally, be the one that best satisfies the specifications, other constraints such as time, cost, or skills may limit the decision.

Prepare working drawings and plan ahead

Draw the chosen design including all the details that are important to its construction.

Construct a prototype

Make the product. In industry a model is usually built first and the final product is developed from it, but in most classrooms, the model is the final product.

Test and evaluate the design

Testing is ongoing as the construction progresses, but a final test of the entire system or model proves if the project does the job for which it is designed. Look back at the specifications and check the requirements carefully. Ask such questions as: How well does the design function? Does the design look good? Is the product safe to use? Were suitable materials used? How could I have improved on my design?

Write a report

The report provides evidence of your work in analysis, planning, designing, carrying out the practical work, evaluating, and communicating.


 10.2 examples of the steps in learning programme development.

Assess training needs:

The first step in developing a training program is to identify and assess needs. Employee training needs may already be established in the organization’s strategic, human resources or individual development plans. If you’re building the training program from scratch (without predetermined objectives), you’ll need to assess which areas to focus on.

Set organizational training objectives:

The training needs assessments (organizational, task & individual) will identify any gaps in your current training initiatives and employee skill sets. These gaps should be analyzed, prioritized, and turned into the organization’s training objectives. The ultimate goal is to bridge the gap between current and desired performance through the development of a training program. At the employee level, the training should match the areas of improvement, which can be comprehensively identified through 360 feedback and evaluations.

Create training action plan:

The next step is to create a comprehensive action plan that includes learning theories, instructional design, content, materials and other training elements. Resources and training delivery methods should also be detailed. While developing the program, the level of training and participants’ learning styles need to also be considered. Many companies pilot their initiatives and gather feedback to make adjustments well before launching the program company-wide.

Implement training initiatives:

The implementation phase is where the training program comes to life. Organizations need to decide whether training will be delivered in-house or externally coordinated. Program implementation should consider employee engagement and learning KPI goals, as well as thoroughly planning the scheduling of training activities and any related resources (facilities, equipment, create questionnaire process etc.). The training program is then officially launched, promoted and conducted. During training, participant progress should be monitored to ensure that the program is effective.

Evaluate & revise training:

As mentioned in the last segment, the training program should be continually monitored. In the end, the entire program should be evaluated to determine if it was successful and met training objectives. Feedback should be obtained from all stakeholders to determine program and instructor effectiveness, plus knowledge or skill acquisition. Analyzing this feedback alongside an employee performance review will allow the organization to identify any weaknesses in the program. At this point, the training program or action plan can be revised if objectives or expectations are not being met.


 10.3 examples of the steps in lesson plan development.

 

1. Identify the learning objectives

Before you plan your lesson, you will first need to identify the learning objectives for the lesson. A learning objective describes what the learner will know or be able to do after the learning experience rather than what the learner will be exposed to during the instruction (i.e. topics). Typically, it is written in a language that is easily understood by students and clearly related to the program learning outcomes. The table below contains the characteristics of clear learning objectives:

Characteristic Description Clearly stated tasks Free from jargon and complex vocabulary; describe specific and achievable tasks (such as ‘describe’, ‘analyse’ or ‘evaluate’) NOT vague tasks (like ‘appreciate’, ‘understand’ or ‘explore’).Important learning goals Describe the essential (rather than trivial) learning in the course which a student must achieve. Achievable Can be achieved within the given period and sufficient resources are available. Demonstrable and measurable Can be demonstrated in a tangible way; are assessable; achievement and quality of achievement can be observed. Fair and equitable All students, including those with disabilities or constraints, have a fair chance of achieving them. Linked to course and program objectives Consider the broader goals - i.e. course, program and institutional goals.

The Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (link) is a useful resource for crafting learning objectives that are demonstrable and measurable.

 

2. Plan the specific learning activities

When planning learning activities you should consider the types of activities students will need to engage in, in order to develop the skills and knowledge required to demonstrate effective learning in the course. Learning activities should be directly related to the learning objectives of the course, and provide experiences that will enable students to engage in, practice, and gain feedback on specific progress towards those objectives.

As you plan your learning activities, estimate how much time you will spend on each. Build in time for extended explanation or discussion, but also be prepared to move on quickly to different applications or problems, and to identify strategies that check for understanding. Some questions to think about as you design the learning activities you will use are:

  • What will I do to explain the topic?
  • What will I do to illustrate the topic in a different way?
  • How can I engage students in the topic?
  • What are some relevant real-life examples, analogies, or situations that can help students understand the topic?
  • What will students need to do to help them understand the topic better?

Many activities can be used to engage learners. The activity types (i.e. what the student is doing) and their examples provided below are by no means an exhaustive list, but will help you in thinking through how best to design and deliver high impact learning experiences for your students in a typical lesson.

Activity Type Learning Activity Description Interaction with content

 

Students are more likely to retain information presented in these ways if they are asked to interact with the material in some way.

Drill and practice Problem/task is presented to students where they are asked to provide the answer; may be timed or untimed Lecture Convey concepts verbally, often with visual aids (e.g. presentation slides)Quiz Exercise to assess the level of student understanding and questions can take many forms, e.g. multiple-choice, short-structured, essay etc. Student presentation Oral report where students share their research on a topic and take on a position and/or role Interaction with digital content

 

Students experiment with decision making, and visualise the effects and/or consequences in virtual environments

Game Goal-oriented exercise that encourages collaboration and/or competition within a controlled virtual environment Simulation Replica or representation of a real-world phenomenon that enables relationships, contexts, and concepts to be studied Interaction with others

 

Peer relationships, informal support structures, and teacher-student interactions/relationships

Debate Verbal activity in which two or more differing viewpoints on a subject are presented and argued Discussion Formal/informal conversation on a given topic/question where the instructor facilitates student sharing of responses to the questions, and building upon those responses Feedback Information provided by the instructor and/or peer(s) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding Guest Speaker Feelings, thoughts, ideas and experiences specific to a given topic are shared by an invited presenter Problem solving and Critical thinking

 

Presenting students with a problem, scenario, case, challenge or design issue, which they are then asked to address or deal with provides students with opportunities to think about or use knowledge and information in new and different ways

Case Study Detailed story (true or fictional) that students analyse in detail to identify the underlying principles, practices, or lessons it contains Concept Mapping Graphical representation of related information in which common or shared concepts are linked togethe Real-world projects Planned set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations, either individually or collaboratively Reflection

 

The process of reflection starts with the student thinking about what they already know and have experienced in relation to the topic being explored/learnt. This is followed by analysis of why the student thinks about the topic in the way they do, and what assumptions, attitudes and beliefs they have about, and bring to learning about the topic.

Reflection journal Written records of students’ intellectual and emotional reactions to a given topic on a regular basis (e.g. weekly after each lesson)

It is important that each learning activity in the lesson must be (1) aligned to the lesson’s learning objectives, (2) meaningfully engage students in active, constructive, authentic, and collaborative ways, and (3) useful where the student is able to take what they have learnt from engaging with the activity and use it in another context, or for another purpose.

 

3. Plan to assess student understanding

Assessments (e.g., tests, papers, problem sets, performances) provide opportunities for students to demonstrate and practice the knowledge and skills articulated in the learning objectives, and for instructors to offer targeted feedback that can guide further learning.

Planning for assessment allows you to find out whether your students are learning. It involves making decisions about:

  • the number and type of assessment tasks that will best enable students to demonstrate learning objectives for the lesson
  • Examples of different assessments
  • Formative and/or summative
  • the criteria and standards that will be used to make assessment judgements
  • Rubrics
  • student roles in the assessment process
  • Self-assessment
  • Peer assessment
  • the weighting of individual assessment tasks and the method by which individual task judgements will be combined into a final grade for the course
  • information about how various tasks are to be weighted and combined into an overall grade must be provided to students
  • the provision of feedback
  • giving feedback to students on how to improve their learning, as well as giving feedback to instructors how to refine their teaching

To learn more about designing assessment, click here.

 

4. Plan to sequence the lesson in an engaging and meaningful manner

Robert Gagne proposed a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which is useful for planning the sequence of your lesson. Using Gagne’s 9 events in conjunction with Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (link) aids in designing engaging and meaningful instruction.


  1. Gain attention: Obtain students’ attention so that they will watch and listen while the instructor presents the learning content.
  • Present a story or a problem to be solved
  • Utilize ice breaker activities, current news and events, case studies, YouTube videos, and so on. The objective is to quickly grab student attention and interest in the topic
  • Utilize technologies such as clickers, and surveys to ask leading questions prior to lecture, survey opinion, or gain a response to a controversial question
  1. Inform learner of objectives: Allow students to organize their thoughts regarding what they are about to see, hear, and/or do.
  • Include learning objectives in lecture slides, the syllabus, and in instructions for activities, projects and papers
  • Describe required performance
  • Describe criteria for standard performance
  1. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge:
  • Help students make sense of new information by relating it to something they already know or something they have already experienced.
  • Recall events from previous lecture, integrate results of activities into the current topic, and/or relate previous information to the current topic
  • Ask students about their understanding of previous concepts
  1. Present new content: Utilise a variety of methods including lecture, readings, activities, projects, multimedia, and others.
  • Sequence and chunk the information to avoid cognitive overload
  • Blend the information to aid in information recall
  • Bloom's Revised Taxonomy can be used to help sequence the lesson by helping you chunk them into levels of difficulty.
  1. Provide guidance: Advise students of strategies to aid them in learning content and of resources available. With learning guidance, the rate of learning increases because students are less likely to lose time or become frustrated by basing performance on incorrect facts or poorly understood concepts.
  • Provide instructional support as needed – as scaffolds (cues, hints, prompts) which can be removed after the student learns the task or content
  • Model varied learning strategies – mnemonics, concept mapping, role playing, visualizing
  • Use examples and non-examples
  1. To find out more about scaffolding student learning, click here
  2. Practice: Allow students to apply knowledge and skills learned.
  • Allow students to apply knowledge in group or individual activities
  • Ask deep-learning questions, make reference to what students already know or have students collaborate with their peers
  • Ask students to recite, revisit, or reiterate information they have learned
  • Facilitate student elaborations – ask students to elaborate or explain details and provide more complexity to their responses
  1. Provide feedback: Provide immediate feedback of students’ performance to assess and facilitate learning.
  • Consider using group / class level feedback (highlighting common errors, give examples or models of target performance, show students what you do not want)
  • Consider implementing peer feedback
  • Require students to specify how they used feedback in subsequent works
  1. Assess performance: To evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional events, test to see if the expected learning outcomes have been achieved. Performance should be based on previously stated objectives.
  • Utilise a variety of assessment methods including exams/quizzes, written assignments, projects, and so on.
  1. Enhance retention and transfer: Allow students to apply information to personal contexts. This increases retention by personalising information.
  • Provide opportunities for students to relate course work to their personal experiences
  • Provide additional practice

 

5. Create a realistic timeline

A list of ten learning objectives is not realistic, so narrow down your list to the two or three key concepts, ideas, or skills you want students to learn in the lesson. Your list of prioritized learning objectives will help you make decisions on the spot and adjust your lesson plan as needed. Here are some strategies for creating a realistic timeline:

  • Estimate how much time each of the activities will take, then plan some extra time for each
  • When you prepare your lesson plan, next to each activity indicate how much time you expect it will take
  • Plan a few minutes at the end of class to answer any remaining questions and to sum up key points
  • Plan an extra activity or discussion question in case you have time left
  • Be flexible – be ready to adjust your lesson plan to students’ needs and focus on what seems to be more productive rather than sticking to your original plan

 

6. Plan for a lesson closure

Lesson closure provides an opportunity to solidify student learning. Lesson closure is useful for both instructors and students.

You can use closure to:

  • Check for student understanding and inform subsequent instruction (adjust your teaching accordingly)
  • Emphasise key information
  • Tie up loose ends
  • Correct students’ misunderstandings
  • Preview upcoming topics

Your students will find your closure helpful for:

  • Summarizing, reviewing, and demonstrating their understanding of major points
  • Consolidating and internalising key information
  • Linking lesson ideas to a conceptual framework and/or previously-learned knowledge
  • Transferring ideas to new situations

There are several ways in which you can put a closure to the lesson:

  • state the main points yourself (“Today we talked about…”)
  • ask a student to help you summarize them
  • ask all students to write down on a piece of paper what they think were the main points of the lesson

10.4 examples of the steps in work schedule development.

  1. Step 1: Define the Schedule Activities. ...
  2. Step 2: Sequence the Activities. ...
  3. Step 3: Estimate the Resources Needed for the Activity. ...
  4. Step 4: Estimating the Duration of Each of the Activities. ...
  5. Step 5: Schedule Development. ...
  6. Step 6: Monitoring and Controlling the Schedule.

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