Identify three main technological innovations and discuss their effects on the impact of small-scale mining on the environment.
1. Automation – It has an effect beyond productivity gains and a decreased environmental footprint. It will change the employment structure whereby, job opportunities for low-skilled workers will be reduced.
2. Electrification – The use of electricity other than other sources of energy such as diesel has made mining easier. Also, it has led to minimal environmental effects due to the reduction of air pollution.
3. Digitization – This has led to easy and fast mining. Thus reduced environmental effects. However this has decreased the rate of employment