1. What are the causes and effects of Gender Based Violence (300 words)
2. How can be Gender Based Violence addressed? (300 words)
Adapted from: Heise.L, Ellsberg. M. and Gottmoeller. M(2002): A global overview of Gender Based Violence
NB: References are needed
Gender-based violence is widespread, and it is becoming a serious issue. According to Block et al. (2019), gender-based violence is all about power imbalance within the society, and women are most likely the victims and men perpetrators. Gender-based violence is brought by different factors combined, and it leaves lasting effects on the victims; therefore, it needs to reduce.
Gender-based violence is caused by different elements that influence an individual’s social environment. According to Davies and True (2015), gender-based violence results from personal, sociocultural, and situational factors combined to interplay gender-based violence. Several factors build gender-based violence perpetrators; individual’s history, which influences their behavior, immediate context in which violence takes place, economic and social environment, and institutions and social structures (Russo and Pirlott, 2006).
According to the study carried out by Block et al. (2019), several factors at the individual level, community, societal, and family, and relationship level work together to increase the chances of gender-based violence. The study found that at the individual level, perpetrator witnessing and receiving abuse as a child play a role in his violent behavior, at family and relationship level men given control over wealth and decision making within the family promote their violent behaviors, isolating women and not giving them social support increases the gender-based violence chances in the community level.
According to Heise et al. (2002), gender-based violence is the biggest threat to family structure; children are raised by one parent who struggles to make ends meet, emotional and psychological torture affect family members due to violence (Mashiri, 2013). According to Russo and Pirlott (2006), Psychological scars can turn violent against their kids, causing them to adopt negative behavior of violence, thereby increasing gender-based violence.
The research carried out by Davies, and True (2015) found that gender-based violence affects women negatively so that they cannot proceed with their education, they cannot make a living, and they cannot associate freely with people hindering their human rights. Women's decision-making involvement plays a good role in ending gender-based violence (Block et al., 2019). Good institutional frameworks and strong policies are required to reduce the inequality between women and men to reduce gender-based (Block et al., 2019).
According to Davies and True (2015), in ending gender-based violence, policymakers should make a complete change in power relations among the two genders. Policymakers should encourage women to participate in civil societies to influence key policy implementation (Russo and Pirlott, 2006). According to the study carried out by Block et al. (2019), society should work on preventing any efforts that encourage unequal gender power-sharing.
Davies and True et al. (2015) suggested that children should be protected from gender-based violence to end the vicious circle of violence. Leaders and lawmakers have a great responsibility to enact laws and policies that explicitly address gender-based violence (Mashiri, 2013). Protecting our society from gender-based violence is the key to our development as humankind.
Block, K., Nasr, H., Vaughan, C., & Alsaraf, S. (2019). What responses, approaches to treatment, and other supports effectively assist refugees who have experienced sexual and gender-based violence. Institute for Research into Superdiversity (IRIS), University of Birmingham.
Davies, S. E., & True, J. (2015). Reframing conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence: Bringing gender analysis back in. Security Dialogue, 46(6), 495-512.
Heise, L., Ellsberg, M., & Gottmoeller, M. (2002). A global overview of gender‐based violence. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 78, S5-S14.
Mashiri, L. (2013). Conceptualisation of gender-based violence in Zimbabwe.
Russo, N. F., & Pirlott, A. (2006). Gender-based violence: concepts, methods, and findings.