Explain why exploitation of common access resources such as uncontrolled hunting might pose a threat to sustainability
Common access resources refer to those natural resources which are not owned by anyone, are free and are available for anyone to use. Examples are forests, fisheries, oil and gas fields, national parks etc. As a result of the inability to exclude people from using them freely, over-consumption, degradation and depletion of these resources occur. One of the popular examples of exploitation of common access resources is uncontrolled hunting, which is a threat to sustainability leading to the depletion of important wildlife on our planet. This are rising exponentially in developing countries, and in less economically developed countries where high levels of poverty and poor regulation exists. An ever increasing human population, expanding markets and increasing demand, combined with improved access and techniques for capture are causing the exploitation of many wildlife species beyond sustainable levels. High unemployment, both local and widespread, is also one the contributing factors results in corruption, crime in the form of illegal poaching and trafficking by youth. Tourism in various parks, sanctuaries suffers when illegal hunting /poaching increases causing death of various important and endangered species and disturbing the balance of the natural ecosystem. This financial loss in tourism is quite incalculable and detrimental to socio-economic development of that area. Continued over-exploitation in the form of illegal hunting, poaching and trafficking can lead to the destruction of the natural resource and eventually extinction of species. These issues pose a critical threat to wildlife-based tourism in various countries, especially developing countries. Proper regulation and control is the key to protect future sustainable development options for these countries. Economic growth and the increase in globalization, population and sustainable developments need acute management of global common access resources.