Answer to Question #52427 in Biology for abby

Question #52427
1. Describe the role of various enzymes that are involved in DNA replication.

2. What does the phrase "in the 5 'to 3' '? Explains how carbon is called 5 'and 3'.

3. Describe the role of the primers during replication of DNA.

4. Where does the DNA replication take place?

5. Describe what is the Okazaki fragments.
Expert's answer
1. There is a list of the enzymes involved in DNA replication. DNA Helicase unwinds the DNA double helix at the replication fork. DNA polymerase builds a new duplex DNA strand, performs proof-reading and error correction. Topoisomerase relaxes the DNA from its super-coiled nature. DNA Ligase re-anneals the semi-conservative strands and joins Okazaki Fragments of the lagging strand. Primase provides a starting poit of RNA (or DNA) for DNA polymerase to begin synthesis of the new DNA strand.
2. The 5′-end designates the end of the DNA or RNA strand that has the fifth carbon in the sugar-ring of the deoxyribose or ribose at its terminus. A phosphate group attached to the 5′-end permits ligation of two nucleotides, i.e., the covalent binding of a 5′-phosphate to the 3′-hydroxyl group of another nucleotide, to form a phosphodiester bond.
3. DNA polymerases need a primer oligonucleotide (RNA or DNA) - their substrates are an existing 3'-OH group and a dNTP. The synthesis of the leading strand is simply a process of extending that original primer.
4. It takes place in nucleus in eukaryotic cells and simply in the cells of prokaryota.
5. Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.

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