Answer to Question #24619 in Biology for mahadara

Question #24619
At what stage, aninmals have differentiation of organ formation? Explain the process of the differentiation and organ formation!
Expert's answer
Differentiation of organ formation in animals occurs in the embryo fetal periodat the stage of neurulation, when a neural plate is formed, which is converted into the neural tube with simultaneous formation of the notochord.The process of cell differentiation and organ formation is formation of a certain phenotype of cells. These cells are able to perform specific specialized functions. This process is due to the realization of the genetic materials. This process is controlled by another process - morphogenesis. It is under the influence of morphogens: transcription factors proteins that determine the fate of cells by interacting with DNA. These can be coded for by master regulatory genes and either activate or deactivate the transcription of other genes; in turn, these secondary gene products can regulate the expression of still other genes in a regulatory cascade. At the end of this cascade, another class of molecules involved in morphogenesis are molecules that control cellular behaviors or, more generally, their properties, such as cell adhesion or cell contractility. For example, during gastrulation, clumps of stem cells switch off their cell-to-cell adhesion, become migratory, and take up new positions within an embryo where they again activate specific cell adhesion proteins and form new tissues and organs.

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