Differences in osmoregulation of plants and animals
Higher plants use the stomata to control water loss. Next, the leaves and stem of the plants may be covered with a waxy layer preventing excessive water loss. Almost all plant cells contain vacuoles that regulate cytoplasm osmolarity - concentration of salts and amounts of water in a cell. In contrast, animals use an excretory system to control the amount of water and salts that are excreted to the environment. This process helps to maintain osmotic pressure. The organs responsible for osmotic regulation in animals vary and may consist of single cells or compose complex organs (i.e., kidneys).
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