6. Homologous Characters
7. Analogous Characters
9. Phylogenic Trees
5. Character State
Cladistics is a classification of biological species based on shared traits.
Homologous characters are similar traits in different organisms that are inherited from a common ancestor.
Asteroids are small, rocky objects in the orbit of the Sun.
Phylogeny is the relationship between different groups of organisms and their evolutionary development.
Analogous characters are similar traits in different organisms that have separate evolutionary origins.
Crinoids are marine invertebrates of the class Crinoidea, phylum Echinodermata with cup-shaped body and flexible arms.
Cladograms are diagrams that represent a relationship between groups of animals.
A clade is a branch within a cladogram, that includes a single common ancestor and all of its descendants.
Holothuroids are an abundant and diverse group of worm-like and soft-bodied animals of the phylum Echinodermata.
Character is a certain body part or property of an organism, also called a trait.
Phylogenetic trees are diagrams that represent evolutionary relationships among organisms.
Ophiuroid is an animal from the class Ophiuroidea (phylum Echinodermata) characterized by elongate arms radiating from the disk.
A character state is a form or expression of a certain trait of the organism.