Answer to Question #166406 in Biology for Sam

Question #166406

Using correct scientific terminology, you must produce a report evaluating the effects caused by the disruption of biological processes for two of the following examples:

o Porphyria

o Lactose intolerance

o Diabetes mellitus

o Cystic fibrosis

o Exposure to carcinogens

o Interference in plant growth regulators

Your evaluation must identify where the disruption of these biological molecules is intentional for human benefit

Expert's answer

Diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, multifactor pathology characterized by the existence of hyperglycemia caused by the absolute lack of insulin due to breakdown of islet cells in the pancreas. Insulin stimulates the absorption of glucose by peripheral tissues from blood. Accumulation of glucose in blood results in impaired protein synthesis, blood acidosis, increased osmotic pressure of the urine and and increased fluid loss, etc.

Cystic fibrosis.

Cystic fibrosis is a progressive, genetic disease. In people with the disease, mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause the impairment of the CFTR affecting the transmembrane transport of chloride ions. The process modifies the electrical potential inside and outside the cell that normally causes cations and water to cross into the cell causing accumulation of thick mucus inside the ducts of organs. The deficient mucociliary clearance clogs small airways and other ducts. The disease causes persistent lung infections and limits the ability to breathe over time. The lack of functional CFTR affects pancreas, sweat glands, etc.

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