1. Biologists amplify the gene of interest from the isolated DNA using PCR.
2. Ampicillin resistance gene can be isolated from the ampicillin-resistant bacteria.
3. The sticky ends interact according to the complementary base pairing rule.
4. The particle gun method might introduce the target gene to nuclear, mitochondrial or plastid genome due to the damage of the organelles during the procedure, whereas electroporation is associated with the transport of the DNA into cytoplasm and nucleus.
5. The biologists use a selective marker. For example, transformed bacteria might be sensitive or resistant to certain antibiotic allowing selection of the transformed bacteria.