Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a viral pathogen that mainly affects the immune system of the host. It penetrates the immune cells (i.e., macrophages, T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells) leading to their apoptosis and death of these immune cells. This process significantly impairs cell-mediated immunity of the host. As a result, the organism becomes more susceptible to other infectious diseases (i.e., bacterial and fungal) that can easily penetrate the organism due to the lack of adequate immune response. This process leads to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with the increased sensitivity to opportunistic infections and cancer.