Contributions of Emile Durkheim ,Karl Marx and Max Weber in the understanding of sociology today
Through Karl Max sociology theory on capitalism, we are able to consider many nations of the world that operate under a system of economic and political standards. According to Karl Marx, social class dictated one’s social life. His major and crucial contribution to sociology wasthe material concept of history. He argued that people’s experiences are shaped by their environment and that their actions, as well as the behaviors, are determined by the condition and the way they react to the conditions they are dealing with. Therefore, what they do shows the true picture of their environment of the world they see around them. Their way of interactions with the social environment and natural world is basically through the process of labor, which Marc called Metabolism and the way labor is organized in the society. Social classes are brought about by the division of labor as people have different positions of employment. Karl Marx as a classical thinker in sociology has come up with different areas of sociology such as political sociology, economic sociology, methodology, sociological theories as well as the sociological thoughts. Karl Marx thoughts changed the society from classless to classes where people have different social classes. This was as a result of a change of modes of productions.
Based on Karl Marx's perspective, through surplus production used to contribute to the creation of profits and benefits through marketing but now it creates different social classes where people have different standards of living. This has created a society where we have low class and high class of people. He also argued that materials bring change in human as well as the society. He has also brought about the impact of industrialization which has also contributed to change of society. Though Karl had no idea on the emergence of middle social class in the society as well as the cooperative movement, he has also contributed much as far as change of society is concerned. Through Karl’s sociology theory, we can see and compare the power of capitalism during the time industrial revolution and how it operates today. We see also the owners of means of production dominating and ruling over the workers. This also is happening in today’s economy It focuses on the individual’s experience of feeling powerless when they don’t understand their own potential causing false consciousness. His theory depends on his dielectric and totality of overturned relationship to the natural environment and to other persons in the society. This is geared to the need for material needs it is during this age that matters of labor and class become the backbone of his theory. The capitalist does not only own the production means but similarly all items produced. Due to their production property ownership, they get an income from their shops and factories. The owning class possesses productive resources though they do not run the production means. Marx vied the commodity as the primary form of modern wealth.
Max Weber's concept of the iron cage is even more relevant today than when he first wrote about it in 1905.Simply put, Weber suggests that the technological and economic relationships that organized and grew out of capitalist production became themselves fundamental forces in society. Thus, if you are born into a society organized this way, with the division of labor and hierarchical social structure that comes with it, you can't help but live within this system. As such, one's life and worldview are shaped by it to such an extent that one probably can't even imagine what an alternative way of life would look like. So, those born into the cage live out its dictates, and in doing so, reproduce the cage in perpetuity. For this reason, Weber considered the iron cage a massive hindrance to freedom. ne of Weber's most recognized contributions to sociology is his work on sociology in religion. His studies in the field led to the publication of his work" Sociology of religion”. Some writers close to religious sociology have come to call Weber a “Christian sociologist”. This, based on Weber's work in this field and his respect for religiosity. The above occurs despite Weber expressly saying that he does not have much affinity
with religious thought. he contributions that Weber made to sociology from its scientific knowledge continue to have wide reception for the development of modern sociological theories. This is mainly explained by the confrontation that, without directly proposing it, Weber's theories maintained with the old sociological tradition. It was this characteristic of his thinking that defined him as representative of the “third ways". This is the influence of his contributions on the current sociology