Define the Following terms?
How do the Following Theories Explain Why Racial and Ethnic Antagonism Exist?
· Prejudice and Discrimination
· The Authoritarian Personality
· Ethnocentrism, Group Closure, and Resource Allocation
What is Institutional Discrimination, Explain How it Operates in American Society Today?
How Do Race and Ethnicity Affect the Life Chances of Different Groups (Chose and analyze three of the following areas)?
Employment and Income
Racial Discrimination–Based Explanations
I. Define the Following terms?
Race is the process of categorizing people based on the social or physical qualities which are deemed distinct in the society, e.g. African American
Ethnicity articulates the shared culture such as practices, beliefs, language, and ancestry, e.g. White or Caucasian
C. Minority Groups
This refers to a subgroup in a particular population which has unique racial, religious, social, ethnic, and other characteristics which are deemed different from those of the majority group, e.g. Asian Americans
II. How do the Following Theories Explain Why Racial and Ethnic Antagonism Exist?
A. Psychological Theories
a) Prejudice and Discrimination
Psychological theories hold that racial and ethnic antagonism exists due to influences in behaviors, thoughts, and emotions created through prejudicial attitudes and socialization. Persistent and adverse effects of prejudicial attitude and discriminatory behavior tends to create explicit racial hostility unconsciously.
b) The Authoritarian Personality
Social-psychological theory states that an authoritarian personality manifested by a certain person negatively correlated with the mastered social roles meant to negate the inherent deficiencies. Authoritarianism tends to perpetuate racial and ethnic antagonism through political power and social structure to gain personal or group benefits.
B. Sociological Interpretations
a) Ethnocentrism, Group Closure, and Resource Allocation
Ethnocentrism strives to explain the inherent intergroup expressions of superiority, exploitativeness, preference, and purity. Racial and ethnic antagonism is created in the process of exhibiting group devotion and cohesion. The split labor market theory holds that events such as racial conflicts are associated with the social structure and discriminatory allocation of the limited resources in the society.
b) What is Institutional Discrimination, Explain How it Operates in American Society Today?
Institutional Discrimination elucidates the discriminatory treatments and unjust practices of institution through unintentional and deliberate selection and bias. Unequal distribution of wealth in America is a sample case of Institutional Discrimination.
III. How Do Race and Ethnicity Affect the Life Chances of Different Groups (Chose and analyze three of the following areas)?
A. Educational Attainment
Differential educational achievement by ethnicity reflects the inequalities in access to education in the society due to a person’s race and ethnicity. Underperformance of pupils from certain ethnic backgrounds is normally associated with institutional racism, material deprivation, labelling, and cultural impacts.
B. Employment and Income
In United States, there is a conspicuous income inequality among different ethnicities and races. Racial pay gap determines the life chances of various groups. For instance, White people are more likely to likely to secure an employment opportunity compared to their Black American counterparts despite of having similar levels of education and experience.
C. Residential Segregation
A person’s racial and ethnicity background has significant influence on residential choice due to the impact of residential segregation. Aspects such as spatial assimilation, immigration and socioeconomic status tend to perpetuate residential housing. For instance, the Atlanta Metropolitan Area is a highly segregated region with 70% as black residents.