which sociological theoretical framework is being used to examine the institution of sports? what level of sociology does the theoretical framework use? this theory directs our attention that throughout history men have dominated the world of sports. for example, the first modern olympic games, held in 1896, barred women from competition. throughout most of the twentieth century, little league teams barred girls based on traditional ideas that girls and women lack the strength to play sports and risk losing their femininity if they do. both the olympics and the little league are now open to females as well as males, but even today, our society still encourages men to become athletes while expecting women to be attentive observers and cheerleaders. at the college level, men’s athletics attracts a greater amount of attention and resources compared to women’s athletics, and men greatly outnumber women as coaches, even in women’s sports (welch & sigelman, 2007). at the professional level, women also take a back seat to men, particularly in sports with the most earning power and social prestige.
Functionalism Conflict Theory
The feminist theory challenges the aspects of sports that systematically privilege's men over women. According to the researches done in the past, sporting activities was primarily grounded in the values and experiences of men with power and influence. The feminism theory came into existence to expose and transform oppressive forms of sexism and homophobia in sports. It asserts that sports can be used to empower women in our societies.
The level of sociology used by the feminism theory is macrosociology that focusses on the cultures, norms, values in the society. The cultural aspects undermine women's participation in the sporting activities due to their femininity. It integrates the use of microsociology in the gender sporting issues by focusing on the existing beliefs, perceptions that hinder women from participating in the sports and athletes.