Examine the ways in which race, ethnicity, gender, and class influence the policy-making process. Focus particularly on policy implementation and provide examples.
Race, ethnicity, and representation have all had a significant impact on policy development and execution. Does it make a difference if you're a man or a woman? We evaluate assumptions arising from two alternative ways to bringing gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking by focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s. According to an additive approach, which assumes that gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, female state legislators, regardless of race/ethnicity, will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform in the same way that their African American and Latino counterparts do. An intersectional perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes the overlapping and interrelated nature of gender and race/ethnicity, implying that legislative women of color will have the strongest oppositional effect on state welfare reform—stronger than other women or men of color.
Policymakers and public leaders around the world must better understand and act to eliminate institutional racism and similar kinds of discrimination based on ethnicity, caste, and indigenous status in order to create safer, freer, more just, and wealthier communities. Today's circumstances have fueled a slew of new leaders and movements that are advocating in novel ways and creating powerful partnerships. There are attempts underway in the Global South to redefine narratives to reflect the experiences of women and girls around the world. Young people in the United States are leading new immigrant rights and racial justice initiatives that are fighting xenophobia, speaking up for black lives, and questioning the relationship between police and prisons and public safety.