Which one of the following options does not represent Claude Ake’s (1996) view on development as a paradigm in Africa? (Refer to book chapter available on ‘e-reserves’)
1. Rejected the assumption that progress is a dynamic process that was spatially transferrable through proximity and interaction.
2. Scientific value was an intrinsic feature of the knowledge that agents possessed of the development process.
3. Part of the legacy of the colonial state was that efforts at state building was completely resistant to the hybridization of institutions and did not accommodate the complexities of indigenous society.
4. Development was not just a strategy employed by African leaders to capitalize on the objective need for development, but also was an idea exploited by former colonizers to ensure they maintained a certain level of control and influence in the colonies.
5. Option 2 and 3 are incorrect.
Option 1 and 2 are incorrect (Ake, Claude. (2021). Democracy and Development in Africa. University Press of Florida. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/45197799