True/False (+2 points each)
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. On you scantron mark A for true and B for false.
____ 1. When a star reaches the protostar stage, it loses its jets and accretion disk.
____ 2. High mass stars have a shorter lifetime than low mass stars.
____ 3. When an object that is producing light is moving away from the observer, the observer will detect a blueshift from the object.
____ 4. When our Sun dies, it will experience a supernova explosion.
____ 5. Blue stars are hotter than red stars.
Multiple Choice (+2 points each)
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 6. When the core of a star is crushed to the point where electrons combine with protons, it becomes a
a. neutron star.
b. red giant.
c. main sequence star.
d. white dwarf.
____ 7. Which two forms of light are completely blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere (are not allowed at at all to reach the surface of the Earth).
a. radio and ultra-violet radiation
b. gamma rays and x-rays
c. ultra-violet radiation and x-rays
d. gamma rays and ultraviolet radiation
e. microwave and x-rays
____ 8. Which spectral type represent the hottest, most massive stars?
____ 9. Which elements are at the center of a white dwarf?
a. hydrogen and helium
b. nitrogen and helium
c. carbon and oxygen
d. carbon and hydrogen
____ 10. What is the best method to determine the chemical composition of a star?
a. study its doppler effect.
b. study its color.
c. study its size.
d. study its spectrum.
____ 11. The point of infinite density of a black hole is best called
a. the point of no return.
b. the event horizon.
c. the singularity.
d. the Schwarzschild radius.
____ 12. The coldest temperature that can possibly exist in the Universe is
a. 0 degrees Kelvins
b. -273 degrees Kelvins
c. -100 degrees Fahrenheit
d. 0 degress Fahrenheit
e. 0 degrees Celsius
____ 13. Which of the following represents the main phases of a low mass star’s life listed in correct chronological order?
a. main sequence, white dwarf, red giant, protostar
b. main sequence, protostar, neutron star, red giant
c. protostar, main sequence, red giant, white dwarf
d. protostar, main sequence, red giant, neutron star
____ 14. During its lifetime, the heaviest element that is created inside a high mass star is
____ 15. What is the approximate lifetime of our Sun?
a. 50 billion years
b. 10 billion years
c. 5 billion years
d. 100 million years
____ 16. What term best describes the nucleus of a comet?
a. rocky sphere
b. dirty snowball
c. icy dirtball
d. dusty debris
____ 17. The term that best describes all the possible forms of light that exist is called:
a. the photo-electric spectrum.
b. the electromagnetic spectrum.
c. the rainbow specrum.
d. the visible spectrum.
____ 18. What kind of spectrum occurs when you are observing a less dense gas in front of a hotter more dense gas?
a. emission line spectrum
b. absorption line spectrum
c. emission line spectrum
d. high density spectrum
____ 19. What kind of spectrum do stars mostly emit?
a. high density spectrum
b. emission line spectrum
c. continuous spectrum
d. absorption line spectrum
____ 20. When an object is heated to higher temperatures, what happens to its wavelength of emission?
a. it stays the same
b. it gets longer
c. it gets shorter
____ 21. Which spectral type is our Sun?
____ 22. Our Sun is currently in the
a. white dwarf stage.
b. red giant stage.
c. protostar stage.
d. main-sequence stage.
____ 23. About how long does it take our Sun to rotate?
a. 11 years
b. 1 day
c. 1 week
d. 1 year
e. 1 month
____ 24. How many moons does Pluto have?
Short Answer (+2 pts) Note: In order to earn any or full credit, the answer has to include as much detail as possible and must refer to what I talked about in class and not to any internet definition.
25. When comets approach the Sun, they develop two tails. What are the two tails composed of?
26. Describe in detail what causes meteor showers to occur on the Earth.
27. List two specific differences between an open cluster and a globular cluster of stars.
28. Describe or draw clearly what the definition of the wavelength of light is.
29. Who discovered that white light is the sum of all colors and what experiment did he conduct to prove this?
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