Hugh Trevor Roper vigorously argued that africa, prior to European contact, was 'without the wheel, the plough, or transport animal, without writing and without history'. Drawing on the views of American thinkers Carter G Woodson and Web Dubois, as well as any relevant information. Critically discuss Roper's assertion.
The assertion by Roper could be true or false based on an individual interpretation and understanding of the concept of history. It is admitted that there were no written records for keeping history in Africa during the precolonial period, but sure enough, Africans had their unique ways of keeping history. Based on Carter G Woods's views on the issues, there is a sense in which history can be transmitted not necessarily through written records but orally, through artifacts, etc. On the other hand, Dubois in his reasoning supports Roper's assertion that Africa really had no history before the invention of the writing materials that were brought by the Colonies, an ide which i disagree with.