Explain China: Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties (military technology; bronze technology; Shang burials; oracle bones; walls and fortifications)
The Xia dynasty (c 2070-1600BCE) was the earliest ancient Chinese government to develop and become the first to stick to the policies of dynasty progression. The Xia dynasty does not have coexisting historical documentation and also was not mentioned in the old Chinese texts from Sang dynasty period since the earliest oracle bones description dates. However, the main Xia economic activities were farming, their daily tools were believed to be made from stones and bones even if they invented the bronze molding.
During the Shang dynasty, most military weapons were made out of bronze which comprises swords, ceremonial tools, and spearheads. The Shang furthermore gain a massive military advantage over their opponents by training horses and developing chariots.
Bronze casting was the primary technology in the Shang that ruled the empire. The bronze cast was utilized by creating molds from clay and designing carves into the clay and then porous molten bronze into the structure. The Shang were also used to decorate weapons, parts of chariots, and virtual vessels.
The Shang leaders sacrifice their servants and bury them in the big tombs that consist of more than 350 bodies. Human sacrifices ceased by the Han regime( 206BC- AD220) and rather pottery figures symbolizing attendants, entertainers, and servants of the dead were buried with the corpse. However, the coffin of the deceased was surrounded by ceremonious vessels usually made of bronze and other appliances, food, and clothing.
During (1600-1050 BC) the Shang dynasty created a tall earthen fortification wall that encircled three square kilometers region around the capital. The crucial purpose for building the wall was for safety.
Oracle bones in the Shang dynasty were shoulder blades of oxen turtle shells. The Oracle bones were employed for communicating with ancestors and goddesses with the concept that they have the power to a cord fortune, crisis, and guidance on the living World. Moreover, the oracle bones were used they the religious leaders such as a priest to document the history of the dominion and the timelines of kings.
In the Zhao dynasty, the work of bronze was improved, inscription, and continued. The expansion of bronze during the Zhao dynasty contain greater tension to details and aesthetics. However, the bronze casting processes during the Zhao dynasty were improved into the lost wax production technique. There was an increase in the application of infantry and strong ironworks were used instead of bronze in warfare.