Answer to Question #205397 in English for Ayanda

Question #205397

Write an essay in which you discuss your views about the role of using information and communication technology (ICT) for university students.

Make use of the following essay plan,to guide you in writing your essay:

*Introduction and thesis statement: introduce your topic.Share the key points you will be addressing in your essay.

*Body: Refer to your own experiences as a student of the university of south africa and discuss the following

-what role does ICT play in your own studies as a university student?

-Discuss how you contact your lecturers,e-tutors and fellow peers using ICT.

-Discuss how you obtain your study materials and how you submit your assignments using ICT.

-Discuss how you obtain information to complete your assignments using ICT.

-What advantages do you think ICT holds for university students to complete their studies?

-What disadvantages do you think ICT may pose for university students to complete their studies?

*Conclusion:your conclusion must capture the ideas of your body

Expert's answer



ICT helps teachers to interact with students.It helps in improve Teaching skill, helps in innovative Teaching. It helps in effectiveness of the classroom. It also helps in improving professional Development and Educational management as well as enhances Active Learning of teacher Trainees. ICT permeates all aspects of life, providing newer, better, and quicker ways for people to interact, network, seek help, gain access to information, and learn. Besides its presence everywhere, Information and Communication Technology has an immense economic significance. Information communications technology (ICT) has the power to transform society. It plays a key role in each of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, providing the infrastructure needed to achieve them.

1.     It is generally believed that ICTs can empower teachers and learners, promote change and foster the development of ‘21st century skills, but data to support these beliefs are still limited

There is widespread belief that ICTs can and will empower teachers and learners, transforming teaching and learning processes from being highly teacher-dominated to student-centered, and that this transformation will result in increased learning gains for students, creating and allowing for opportunities for learners to develop their creativity, problem-solving abilities, informational reasoning skills, communication skills, and other higher-order thinking skills. However, there are currently very limited, unequivocally compelling data to support this belief.

2.     ICTs are very rarely seen as central to the overall learning process

Even in the most advanced schools in OECD countries, ICTs are generally not considered central to the teaching and learning process. Many ICT in education initiatives in LDCs seek to place ICTs as central to teaching and learning.

3.     An enduring problem: putting technology before education

One of the enduring difficulties of technology use in education is that educational planners and technology advocates think of the technology first and then investigate the educational applications of this technology only later.

Impact on student achievement

1.     The positive impact of ICT use in education has not been proven In general, and despite thousands of impact studies, the impact of ICT use on student achievement remains difficult to measure and open to much reasonable debate.

2.     Positive impact more likely when linked to pedagogy It is believed that specific uses of ICT can have positive effects on student achievement when ICTs are used appropriately to complement a teacher’s existing pedagogical philosophies.

3.     ‘Computer-Aided Instruction’ has been seen to slightly improve student performance on multiple-choice, standardized testing in some areas

Computer-Aided Instruction, which refers generally to student self-study or tutorials on PCs, has been shown to slightly improve student test scores on some reading and math skills, although whether such improvement correlates to real improvement in student learning is debatable.

4.     Need for clear goals

ICTs are seen to be less effective when the goals for their use are not clear. While such a statement would appear to be self-evident, the specific goals for ICT use in education are, in practice, are often only very broadly or rather loosely defined.

5.     There is an important tension between traditional versus 'new' pedagogies and standardized testing

Traditional, transmission-type pedagogies are seen as more effective in preparation for standardized testing, which tends to measure the results of such teaching practices than are more ‘constructivist’ pedagogical styles.

6.     Mismatch between methods used to measure effects and type of learning promoted

In many studies, there may be a mismatch between the methods used to measure effects and the nature of the learning promoted by the specific uses of ICT. For example, some studies have looked only for improvements in traditional teaching and learning processes and knowledge mastery instead of looking for new processes and knowledge related to the use of ICTs. It may be that a more useful analysis of the impact of ICT can only emerge when the methods used to measure achievement and outcomes are more closely related to the learning activities and processes promoted by the use of ICTs.

7.     ICTs are used differently in different school subjects

Uses of ICTs for simulations and modelling in science and math have been shown to be effective, as have word processing and communication software in the development of student language and communication skills.

8.     Access outside of school affects the impact

The relationships between in-class student computer use, out of class student computer use and student achievement are unclear. However, students in OECD countries reporting the greatest amount of computer use outside school are seen in some studies to have lower than average achievement.

9.     Users believe that ICTs make a positive difference

In studies that rely largely on self-reporting, most users feel that using ICTs make them more effective learners.

Impact on student motivation

1.     ICTs motivate teachers and students

There appears to be a general consensus that both teachers and students feel ICT use greatly contributes to student motivation for learning.

2.     Access outside of school affects user confidence

Students who use a computer at home also use them in school more frequently and with more confidence than pupils who have no home access.

3.     Where to place computers has an impact

Placing computers in classrooms enables much greater use of ICTs for ‘higher order’ skills than placing computers in separate computer laboratories. Related to this is increasing attention given to the use of laptops by both teachers and students, as well as, to a much lesser extent, to the use of personal digital assistants and other mobile devices.

4.     Models for successfully integrating ICT use in school and after school hours are still emerging

There are few successful models for the integration of student computer use at home or in other 'informal settings' outside of school facilities with use in school.

5.     The appropriate ages for introducing computers to students are hotly debated

On a general level, appropriate ages for student ICT use, in general, are unclear. However, it is clear that certain uses are more or less appropriate, given student ages and abilities. Emerging research cautions against widespread use at younger ages.

6.     ICTs can promote learner autonomy

Evidence exists that the use of ICTs can increase learner autonomy for certain learners.

7.     Gender affects the impact

The uses of ICTs in education in many cases to be affected by the gender of the learner.

8.     The ‘pilot effect’ can be an important driver for positive impact

Dedicated ICT-related interventions in education that introduce a new tool for teaching and learning may show improvements merely because the efforts surrounding such interventions lead teachers and students to do ‘more’



A review of the research on the impacts of ICTs on student achievement yields few conclusive statements, pro or contra, about the use of ICTs in education. For every study that cites significant positive impact, another study finds little or no such positive impact. Many studies that find positive impacts of ICTs on student learning rely (to an often uncomfortable degree) on self-reporting (which may be open to a variety of positive biases).


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