a. In a market economy undertakings face different financial problems, that it is necessary to predicting the future of the enterprise, and it is possible only when the financial strategy of the company. Based on financial strategy defined financial policy enterprise core businesses: tax, pricing, amortization, dividend, investment. In developing the financial strategy focuses on producing competitive products, domestic resource mobilization, the maximum reduction of production costs, profit formation and distribution, efficient use of capital of the company and so on.
b. Internal control is a process, generate and attract people who have the power of control, management and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance in terms of the reliability of the accounting (financial) reporting and the effectiveness of operations and their compliance with laws and regulations used. The purpose of internal controls - ensuring compliance with all of our employees to perform their duties in accordance with the organization's objectives. Internal control includes the following components: control environment; Threat assessment processes subject; information systems, including the related business processes related to financial reporting and information exchange; control procedures; monitoring and control. The organization of internal control need to follow two principles: feasibility and economy. Internal control compliance expediency is rational and optimal construction of his system, and the principle of efficiency provides an economic and efficient organization of internal control in the company in which the cost of the organization of the overlap effect from its implementation.
c. Short-term and long-term funding for different implementation. The goal is short-term financing working capital, meet current obligations. The goal of long-term financing is to obtain funds to finance long-term investment and other projects of the company, the income formation of long-term securities portfolio, which increases the company's market value, the increase of the share capital.
d. Financial Statement Analysis Tools: horizontal (temporal) analysis, based on a comparison of each position reporting with the previous period; vertical analysis, is to determine the structure of financial indicators; trend analysis - a comparison of each position reporting with previous periods and determine the trend, ie the main trends in performance; analysis ratios (financial ratios) - calculation of numerical ratios of different forms of reporting, definition of relationships between indicators; Comparative analysis is based on a comparison of impacts with those of its subsidiaries and divisions, and competitors; Factor analysis - analysis of the impact of certain factors on the resultant figure.
e. Model strategic profit, another name for DuPont equation used to analyze the profitability of equity. calculation. With it you can: identify five key ratios (ratios) according to financial statements (net return on equity, return on net assets, net return on sales turnover of assets, the share multiplier (own) capital); about the importance of the company in time (analyzing the dynamic factors); identify the main trends in-depth study of the company.