Answer to Question #172069 in General Chemistry for Eon

Question #172069

bcl3 is trigonal planar while ACl3 is tetrahedral in a dimeric state explain

Expert's answer

BCl3 is trigonal planar atomic number of boron is 5, it's valence shell orbital is 3, In ground state one electon in s orbital two electrons in p orbital ,In

Excited one electon from s orbital goes into p orbital i.e. total 3 unpaired electrons one in s shell and two in p shell px and py this unpaired electrons get paired with one unpaired electron of chlorine atom so it form a sigma bond so it means total 3 sigma bond is formed one in s orbital and two in p orbital i.e. sp2 hybridization is formed so it is trigonal plannar and bond angle is 120 degree

In AlCl3 molecule also form sp2 hybridization but after hybridization in AlCl3 molecule the octet of Al is incomplete due to deficiency of two electrons in Al

To complete octet require 8 electrons but it has only 6 electron in Al atom of AlCl3 molecule

To complete it's octet its take lone pair of electrons from chlorine atom of another molecule of AlCl3 and form Al2Cl6 molecule due to formation of co-ordinate bond so it form dimer in state and finally it forms sp3 hybridization so it forms tetrahedral in dimeric state

Boron atom not form in dimer due to small in size and short bond length repulsion occur.

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