(a) Skin scraping is used to diagnose ringworm (Tinea corporis) and other fungal skin infections. Ringworm is caused by a fungal infection that results in the formation of round skin rash that is commonly itchy. It is a highly contagious infection mainly affecting the skin of the torso and limbs.
(b) The stool is analyzed to diagnose shigellosis. This is a bacterial disease caused by Shigella species. The microbe invades epithelial layer of the colon leading to the development of inflammation associated with diarrhoea and dysentery.
(c) Cerebrospinal fluid can be used to diagnose meningitis. This is an infectious disease caused by several bacterial species (i.e., Neisseria meningitides) and is associated with inflammation of the brain and spinal cord membranes. The process causes swelling, headache, fever, stiff neck, etc.