1. Distinguish between the following :
(a) Acellular and Cellular Organisms
(b) Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
(c) Cilia and Flagella
(a) Acellular and Cellular Organisms – The difference between them is in their structures. Cellular organisms have typical components of the cell – phospholipid membrane, different organelles (ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum etc.) and own system of protein producing. And acellular organisms (such as viruses) don’t have all of that and mostly consist only from capsid and nucleic acids. (b) Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - There are 3 main differences between them. Eukaryotes have nucleus and Prokaryotes – no. Eukaryotes have two-membrane organelle (mitochondria, chloroplast) and Prokaryotes – no. The size of eukaryotic cell is bigger than size of prokaryotic cell. Another one important difference is different way to synthetize proteins, DNA and membrane lipids. (c) Cilia and Flagella – Both of them are specific organoids of movements. The main distinguish is in their size and amount on the cell’s surface. Cilia are smaller and there are lots of cilia on each cell. And Flagella are much bigger than cilium and there are usually one or few flagella on each cell. Additionally, they distinguish by occurring on different cells – Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes have flagella and only Eukaryotes have cilia.