Answer to Question #213844 in Cell Biology for lala

Question #213844

1. Mitochondria and chloroplast are energy related organelles that plat important role in living organisms.

a). Identify the importance of thylakoid membrane in chloroplast and the inner membrane of mitochondria.

b). Describe the possible outcome if proteins along these two membranes denature?

c). Describe an example of minimal energy production that a eukaryote organism may undergo to sustain living in a limited oxygen supply condition. Support your answer with appropriate equation. 

Expert's answer

a) The major difference between chloroplasts and mitochondria, in terms of both structure and function, is the thylakoid membrane. This membrane is of central importance in chloroplasts, where it fills the role of the inner mitochondrial membrane in electron transport and the chemiosmotic generation of ATP .

b) The hydrophobic effect and the structure of these transmembrane proteins foretell this result. To denature, which is to lose secondary and tertiary structure, the transmembrane helices must unfold and thus break all the interior hydrogen bonds.

c) - If enough oxygen is not present for the cell to do aerobic respiration to produce energy, a cell may undergo anaerobic respiration to produce ATP. For example- if during heavy exercise muscle cells donot get enough oxygen to produce ATP, they do lactic acid fermentation to produce ATP, this is an example of anaerobic respiration.

Chemical equation for lactic acid fermentation in muscle cells:

2 pyruvic acid + 2NADH ----> 2 lactic acid + 2 NAD+

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