Answer to Question #176974 in Cell Biology for Lia

Question #176974

Reflect on the importance of organic compounds in living beings and answer: Do you think that the human being is similar to a bacterium or a plant? Justify your answer.

(It has to be 200 words)

Expert's answer

Notably, organic compounds are essential molecules containing atomic carbons that bond covalently with 3hydrogen atoms. In addition, animal and plant tissues, bacteria and fungi are known to have organic molecules. Also, fallen leaves, eggs, fruits, vegetables, wood, paper, milk, gasoline and petroleum have this organic compounds. Organic molecules that relates to all living organisms are known as biomolecules.

Moreover, we have four types that are highly important to human function and structure; nucleotides, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Basically, to understand this four types one is required to clearly understand carbon chemistry and moreso the five functional groups essential to human function which includes carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl, phosphate and methyl.

In human structures, carbohydrates has got three forms important to human functions; monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosacchardes are mainly five and important to human body and are divided into two groups; Hexose sugars- glucose, galactose, and fructose, and pentose sugars- deoxyribose and ribose. On the other hand, disaccharides are types of sugars that human body get from diet but used indirectly by the human body; table sugar (luctose or milk sugar) and maltose sugar. Lastly, polysaccharides has got few or several Monosacchardes whereby three are essential to human body; starches, glycogen and cellulose. Starches are mainaly polymers of glucose stored in palnt-based food and are easily digestable. Besides, glycogen is mainly stored in animal tissues that is, liver and muscles while cellulose mainly known as the fiber, not easily digestable but has many health benefits.

Lipids as a diverse group of compounds is made up of hydrocarbons and mainly contain few atoms of oxygen. Notably, lipids aren't soluble in water and only forms an emulsion.

Proteins are organic compounds made up of amino acids and mainly are essential components of all organs and tissues. In addition, they contain digestive enzymes in the digestive tract, neurotransmitters and antibodies. Unlike carbohydrates and lipids, protein contain nitrogen and most have Sulphur additional to oxygen, hydrogen and carbon.

Nucleotides is the fourth type of organic compounds very essential to human functions and structure and are made up of three subunits; one or more phosphate, a pentose sugar and nitrogen that contains uracil, thymine, guanine and adenine. Moreover, nucleotides can be summed into nucleic acids, that is DNA and RNA or the energy compounds.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that plant and human beings are living organisms with common characteristics. For instance, both use water and nutrients for survival. Also, human and plants contain DNA made of nucleotides.

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