Answer to Question #101292 in Cell Biology for Abhishek

Question #101292
Write short notes on the following:

(a) Type of bonds

(b) Mesenchyme

(c) Proton pump in photosynthesis

(d) Cyclic AMP as second messenger
Expert's answer

Type of bonds:

  • Electrovalent bonds formed by either donating or accepting electrons.
  • Covalent bonds formed by sharing of electrons
  • Metallic bonds In metallic bonds, the valence electrons from the s and p orbitals of the interacting metal atoms delocalize.

Mesenchyme is a type of animal tissue comprised of loose cells embedded in a mesh of proteins and fluid, called the extracellular matrix.

Proton pump is a membrane-integrated enzymatic complex which is able to mobilize protons to generate a proton gradient across the membrane. This proton gradient constitutes a fundamental energy reservoir. The proton pump plays an important role in cell respiration and photosynthesis.

cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the plasma membrane. It is also involved in the activation of protein kinases.

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