Answer to Question #162826 in Biochemistry for ashelu

Question #162826

need help writing a summary on the 6 major types of nutrients

need as much detail as possible

-carbohydrates

-fats

-proteins

-vitamins

-minerals

-water


1
Expert's answer
2021-02-11T04:33:07-0500

A Nutrient is a substance or compound in a food that provide us with energy and facilitates repair and growth and help to carry out different life process in every living organism.

Nutrients are of two types:-

  1. Macronutrients
  2. Minornutrients
  • Macronutrients:-which are required by the body in large amounts.
  • Micronutrients:- which are required by the body in small amounts.

FOLLOWING ARE THE SIX MAJOR TYPES OF NUTRIENTS :-


1-CARBOHYDRATES :- Carbohydrates are type of Macronutrients used for quick energy in cell. Carbohydrates is the one of the main source of energy for human beings. It comprises of three types of Carbohydrates and they include fibre, sugar and starch. They are usually low calories and thus help in maintainning a healthy diet.

The basic unit of carbohydrates is a monosaccharide. An example of a monosaccharide is glucose or sugar. Glucose can be by itself, or assembled into long chains to make things like starch, which can be found in potatoes.Foods that contain carbohydrates include grains, cereal, bread, pasta, potatoes, fruits and sweets such as soda and candy.


2-FATS:-Fats are called lipids and are a macronutrient in your body that stores energy. Fats have long chains of carbon and hydrogen, which store lots of energy in the chemical bonds. Fats are important in our body to cushion organs, protect our cells, and send signals in the form of hormones around our body.

It is one of the most important sources of calories. One gram of fat consists of 9 calories. It is almost twice of calories that we get from carbohydrates and proteins. Fat is usually found in foods taht are rich in fats uch as butter and oil.


3-PROTEINS :- Proteins are made of minno acids. Proteins are a macronutrient that the cells in your body use for structure. Protein is very important for building tissues, such as muscle. Muscle is mainly made up of proteins.

Proteins are made from smaller monomers called amino acids. There are twenty amino acids that make up all the kinds of protein your body needs. Your body can make some of the amino acids you need, but there are nine that you must consume in your diet. These are called essential amino acids. The nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine

We can obtain protein in foods such as nuts, lentils, beef, rice, chicken, beef etc.


4:- VITAMINS:- Vitamins are micronutrients that offer a range of health benefits, including:-

A-boosting the immune system


B-helping prevent or delay certain cancers, such as prostate cancer

strengthening teeth and bones


C-aiding calcium absorption


D-maintaining healthy skin

helping the body metabolize proteins and carbs


E-adding brain and nervous system functioning.

There are 13 essential vitamins that nutritionists divide into two groups: fat soluble and water soluble.

#Fat soluble vitamins are:

  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin K

#Water soluble vitamins are:

  • vitamin B-1 (thiamine)
  • vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamin)
  • vitamin B-6
  • vitamin B-2 (riboflavin)
  • vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid)
  • vitamin B-3 (niacin)
  • vitamin B-9 (folate, folic acid)
  • vitamin B-7 (biotin)
  • vitamin C


5- MINERALS:- Minerals are the second type of micronutrients. There are two groups of minerals: major and trace minerals. The body needs a balance of minerals from both.

#Major minerals are:

  • magnesium
  • calcium
  • phosphorus
  • sulfur
  • sodium
  • potassium
  • chloride

Major minerals help the body to do the following:

  • balance water levels
  • maintain healthy skin, hair, and nails
  • improve bone health

#Trace minerals are:

  • iron
  • selenium
  • zinc
  • manganese
  • chromium
  • copper
  • iodine
  • fluoride
  • molybdenum

Trace minerals help with:

  • strengthening bones
  • preventing tooth decay
  • aiding in blood clotting
  • helping to carry oxygen
  • supporting the immune system
  • supporting healthy blood pressure.

A person can ensure they consume enough minerals by including the following foods in their diet:g seafood, vegetables, red meat, milk and other dairy products, nuts and seeds.


6:-WATER:-Water is probably the most important essential nutrient that a person needs. A person can only survive a few days without consuming water. Even slight dehydration can cause headaches and impaired physical and mental functioning.


The human body is made up of mostly water, and every cell requires water to function. Water helps with several functions, including:


  • flushing toxins out
  • shock absorption
  • transporting nutrients
  • preventing constipation, lubrication and hydration

The best source for water is to drink natural, unsweetened water from the tap or bottled sources.




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